Copyright © 2007- 2009 Brian McCamish,  All Rights Reserved

Note about the photos on this site:
Most photos were taken by me.  I usually allow people to use my photos for personal use or websites.  Simply Email me.  
Last Update:  September 9, 2009
Welcome to my Expedition Land Cruiser Engine page.

This page is linked from our main Expedition Land Cruiser Page, which is all about our 1995 Toyota Land Cruiser FZJ80 and our
modifications to make it a capable vehicle for our local expeditions, travels and trips.

The page covers the Engine, transmission, transfer case, and all major electrical systems, including the
duel battery system.    For other sections, see the below links.

Our Expedition Land Cruiser Action photos page
Our Expedition Land Cruiser Exterior page.
Our Expedition Land Cruiser Interior page.
Our Expedition Land Cruiser Gear page.
Our article regarding how and why we bought a Land Cruiser.
Check out our Land Cruiser 1FZ engine and transmission tech and history page
This page describes the history and technical details of the 1FZ engine, transmission and transfer case of the
Land Cruiser 80 series.
This is our engine as looks today.  The 1FZ is completely stock, but the engine compartment is not without modification.
A completely new custom dual battery system now occupies the engine and provides the much needed additional electrical
resources and security for our expedition travels.
The duel battery system was designed to be relatively simple, bulletproof and functional.

The Simplicity involved a few tricks from Slee Off Road.   One such trick is to utilized a factory battery tray from a '91-'92 Land Cruiser FJ80.  The
earlier Land Cruiser 80s had the battery located on the U.S. passenger side, where as later model Land Cruisers like mine had the battery mounted
on the driver's side.   However, later model Land Cruisers still had the original bolt holes for the older tray in the body.   This handy feature allows for
the use of an older tray mounted as if it were stock.   

Some very minor trimming of the new tray is needed, but the more difficult mod is the necessary relocation of the wiper fluid bottle.  Fortunately, Slee
Off Road makes a very handy and simple bracket kit that makes relocating this bottle a cinch.  When finally completed, the duel battery looks and
operated very much like it came that way from the factory.

On the right hand side is the factory battery tray.  The redtop Optima battery provides starter power for the engine and powers all factory equipment
and accessories and operates as the stock battery.   The yellow top Optima is a deep cycle battery.  All non-factory accessories are wired off of it,
including the off road lights, winch, radios, cooler, etc.

An electronic 200 continuous rated amp relay controls the connection between the two batteries.   Only the redtop battery has a permanent
connection to the alternator, so when disconnected, the yellowtop is not charged.   A three position switch in the cab controls the relay.   When off, the
two batteries are disconnected.  When flipped to "on starter" the batteries are only connected when the ignition switch is turned on.  This is the
position that I normally leave the relay set too.  That way, the relay automatically connects the batteries when the motor is running and charges both
batteries and automatically disconnects the batteries, when the engine is turned off, so they can't discharge each other.  The other switch position is
"manual override".    This connects the batteries with the ignition switch off and would be useful if the starter battery were to be die and need to be
jump started off of the auxiliary battery.

Extra precautions were added to the duel battery set up.  The connecting wiring between the two batteries is heavy welding wire and is mounted over
the radiator up top so that it can regularly inspected for damage.   This is the most dangerous wire in the entire vehicle.   Were it to short out, it's size
would allow it to spark and cause a massive fire before melting and disconnecting.  In addition, it has the massive power of two batteries to give it
more than enough power to cause some serious damage.    An extra layer of heater hose provides additional protection.   A 200 amp slow burn fuse
also controls the connection at the red top battery side.

On the yellow top (not shown in the above photo) the winch and off road lights connect directly the yellow top auxiliary battery.    Another connection
leaves the relay junction, from the yellow top to a single high amp fuse.  This connection then enters the cab and powers all of the internal
accessories in the cab, including the computer, GPS, radios, cooler and other accessories.   This single power source keeps things simple.  And all
accessories in the cab can be turned of or disonnected from power with the flip of a single master switch.
Duel Battery System
Auxiliary Electric Engine Fans
The electric engine fan mod was very easy to do, so while adding the duel battery system, I decided to add an auxiliary engine.   Normally the engine
is cooled by a belt driven plastic fan and that's all that is needed.    However Toyota did offer an auxiliary electric fan on some models.   My
understanding is that they were offered on overseas models that came with rear air conditioning.  These were typically offered in extreme hot
climates such as the Middle East.

While my model, just like all U.S. spec Land Cruisers, never came with rear air,  an auxiliary fan can still come in handy.    The stock fan will cool the
engine in just about all conditions, but there's some debate that an auxiliary might be necessary in extreme conditions such as low speed operation
in extreme hot weather conditions.  But the fan is most useful at low speed for cooling the A/C condenser and providing a more effective AC at low
speed in hot weather.   It can also be used as a back up fan should the stock fan/clutch fail.

Not shown in the photos, I later added a second auxiliary fan of a smaller size that mounts over the transmission cooler for additional auxiliary
cooling.    I've found minimal difference in temp with the original auxiliary fan turned on, but with both fans turned on in hot weather, while idling, the
combination of both fans does lower temps.
This more of  "in my dreams" rather than a true future mod.   The FZJ80 actually has significant power for a truck that can weigh close to 7000lbs
when fully modified and loaded like mine is.   But you can never have too much power and there are definately times, when I want more power.   I will
probably never be able to afford or justify a supercharger and one thing that definately concerns me about the supercharger mod is the potential
need to upgrade the headgasket on a truck that has the original headgasket like mine does.   But it will remain on my dream list.
FUTURE MODIFICATIONS in order of priority
Engine lights
To allow the engine to be worked on at night or during emergency situations, I installed two high power 1 watt LEDs on the underside of the hood.  
The LEDs come from and work great!   A switch in the engine compartment turns the lights on and off.    Because they are
LEDs, the light is very natural, bright and use almost no power, which means they can be left on for hours or even days with minimal affect on the
Insulated intake system
This was an experiment to see if it was possible reduce intake temperatures, increase performance, fuel economy, especially during extreme hot
ambient conditions.

What I did was completely wrap the entire intake system in reflective insulation tape from the air filter canister to the throttle body.   The results are
still in question.    So far, temperatures do seem to be reduced at highway speeds, but still climb when at idle and driving at slow speeds, but appear
to be less than what they would otherwise be.   One of the problems with the 1FZ is the intake is placed directly over the exhaust, so heat wrapping
makes more sense than other applications.
Front and Rear ARB lockers
Now equipped with front and rear ARB lockers  The set up is a little unique in that I didn't use any of the ARB supplied switches...

The lockers were installed into the stock rear diff by LandCruisers Northwest, here in Portland.   I did the wiring and plumbing myself.   I installed the
ARB full size air pump into the engine compartment using Slee's special bracket, which allows the pump to be mounted in literally the only pocket of
space available in the entire engine bay.  I have no idea where I could have mounted the pump without this bracket.    A special manifold on the
firewall is supplied air from the pump and the manifold runs the locker relay and has an extra socket for an hose to be hooked up to air up tires.
My primary tire air source is a 10lb Power Tank CO2 air tank, but this works as a great back up source.    

Unfortunately, the original ARB pump failed and I later purchased the cheaper and easier to source smaller and newer ARB pump, which is now
resides in place of the older pump.    Slee's bracket fortunately is designed to fit both pump styles.

The locker switch is the Toyota factory FZJ80 locker switch used in Land Cruisers that came with factory lockers.  Mine did not, so I bought the switch
and wired it up to fire the locker.   The switch has two positions, originally for the rear, then front lockers.   The switch is currently wired up that
position one, turns on the compressor and the rear locker at the same time.   Position two, leaves the compressor and rear locker on and turns on
the front locker.
I also have the following FZJ80 engine/drivetrain related repair/upgrade articles.
Major FZJ80 Cooling System Overhaul
FZJ80 Starter Replacement
FZJ80 Alternator upgrade